By Joseph Greenberg
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Extra resources for Language Typology: A Historical and Analytic Overview
Another well-known transformationalist who takes into account the possibility of lawlike limitations on the mapping of deep into surf ace structures and the associated notions of typology and implicational universale is Fillmore (1968: esp. 1 -2 and 61 -70). " In answer to this, he points to studies of markedness and notes: "If such studies can be interpreted as making empirical assertions about the mapping of deep structures into surface structures, they may point to universal constraints of the following form.
We then learn that Arabic would belong with the latter because the vowels are not written! 1 The other instance is Wundt (1900:11, 436) who outlines twelve pairs of oppositions (Gegensatzpaare) by means of which languages might be classified. Among his examples are prefix versus suffix languages, languages with free and fixed word order, and languages with specially elaborated verbal as against nominal forms. He adds that these are of course not the only types which can be defined. During this period then, what came to be called morphological classification (as was seen earlier, the word 'typology' does not occur in linguistic discussion until ca.
He outlines three classes of languages: "languages without grammatical structure, affixing and inflectional languages" (1818:559). With this threefold division in which 'without grammatical structure' corresponds to the later term isolating and 'affixing' to agglutinative, August von Schlegel stated the theory in what was to be its most persistent and enduring form. Moreover, unlike the earlier form of the theory enunciated by his brother Friedrich, his much more detailed exposition is firmly anchored in the concept of internal structure and the external function of the word as a unit.