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By John Holm

Accounting for the structural alterations among "non-creole" language kinds (such as African-American English, Afrikaans and Brazilian Vernacular Portuguese) and the ecu resource languages out of which they grew, John Holm argues that those alterations resulted from "partial restructuring". while many of the resource languages' morphological and syntactic positive aspects have been retained, an important variety of positive factors from the non-native audio system' languages have been additionally brought. Holm identifies the linguistic methods resulting in partial restructuring, bringing into concentration a facet of contact-induced language switch which has formerly now not been analyzed.

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22 Languages in Contact Regarding the linguistic make-up of each variety, the following factors were considered: 1. the sources of lexicon: archaic, regional, or sociolectal usages in superstrate; substrate languages; adstrate languages; pidgins or creoles spoken elsewhere; 2. e. in phonotactic rules or actual phonemes and their allophones; 3. g. g. number/gender marking on articles, adjectives; possessive constructions) and VP (bound vs. g. use of prepositions and conjunctions; word order in main clauses; structure of dependent clauses).

Hickey (forthcoming) says “There is no evidence of this in Irish English. Perhaps the claim derives from a misunderstanding . g. “He tell me he God” (Dillard 1972:79). The cradle of the development of African American English was Virginia, the first and most populous colony in the southern part of British North America. In Virginia the status of Africans was comparable to that of indentured servants during the first part of the seventeenth century; most worked as domestics or on small farms and seem likely to have had sufficient access to local English.

However, as the shift was taking place, substratum structural features and interlanguage patterns were transferred to the target language, becoming fossilized. (Mello 1997:270) Lucchesi (2000) basically takes the same position, but calls BVP the product of “irregular language transmission” that was mais leve (‘lighter’) than full creolization. Bonvini (2000) describes a creole-like lect of BVP called L´ıngua dos Pretos Velhos (LPV) traditionally used by Brazilian practitioners of candombl´e religious ceremonies for the light it could shed on earlier language contact.

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