Download Neotropical Insect Galls by Geraldo Wilson Fernandes, Jean Carlos Santos PDF

By Geraldo Wilson Fernandes, Jean Carlos Santos

The ebook brings to gentle the newest findings at the biogeography, biodiversity, host plant induction and usual historical past of gall inducing bugs within the Neotropical quarter. we try to summarize the paintings performed to date within the sector, advertise numerous syntheses on many facets similar to host induction, host specialization, distribution one of the a number of plants forms and zones, the starting place of great hosts and the mechanisms resulting in geographical styles of their distribution. moreover, the publication constructs new views for deeper realizing of galling insect evolutionary ecology and biogeopgraphy within the region.

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Extra resources for Neotropical Insect Galls

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Gall inducing Coleoptera and Lepidoptera usually attack stems, generating galls that are poorly distinct in functional terms from their host organs. In this case, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pith and cambium occur, forming the tissues from which the larva feeds (Mani 1964; Dreger-Jauffret and Shorthouse 1992). Jayaraman (1989) compared 50 insect galls on stem axis and concluded that their developmental pattern seems to be correlated to the site of induction. When it is external on the stem, the epidermis or the outer cortex proliferate to form a “covering gall”; but when the oviposition occurs inside the stem tissues, the phloem, cambium, xylem and pith proliferate to form an internal gall, fusiform or spherical shaped.

A) Inflorescence with ungalled flowers and pedicel galls. (b) A scanning electron micrograph of a galled pedicel evidencing a larva inside the larval chamber. (c) Transverse section of an intermediate gall development showing the ground system alterations into the cortical region, vascular region, sclerenchyma region and nutritive tissue surrounding the larval chamber. Sclereids may appear in the cortical region. (d) Detail of the lipid-rich nutritive tissue. CR cortical region, F flowers, G galls, La larva, Li lipids, NT nutritive tissue, Sc sclereids, SR sclerenchyma region, VR vascular region.

2005; Vieira and Kraus 2007). In general, the nutritional quality of gall tissues is improved, as reported by Detoni et al. (2010) for the accumulation of carbohydrates in the galls induced by two species of Tanaostigmodes (Hymenoptera) on Calliandra brevipes (Fabaceae). In these systems, the fructose content of the galled tissues is two-fold higher than that of the non-galled ones, either for C. brevipes–Tanaostigmodes ringueleti or C. brevipes–T. mecanga. These results show that even though the nutritive tissues accumulate lipids, the general nutritional content of the galls may involve other metabolites.

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