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By Sheldon K. Friedlander

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Extra resources for Ozone and Other Photochemical Oxidants (Medical and biologic effects of environmental pollutants)

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This method could not simulate the engineering practice specifically. Kutara et al. (1980) employed one-dimensional consolidation theory to predict the long-term settlement under traffic loads, which is equivalent to the static load. But the three-dimensional properties and settlement accumulation effect were not considered in their computation. Ling et al. (2002) calculated the accumulated settlement and pore water pressure using empirical equations. And then the accumulated settlement of the subgrade was derived by superposition in layered summation under traffic loads.

The results showed that the pore structure fractal dimension variation at different depths can be reflected by different cyclic stress ratio (CSR). Wang et al. (2007a, b) respectively analyzed the two-dimensional and threedimensional porosity algorithms by processing SEM images based on area and volume calculation method by GIS. Tang et al. (2008a) calculated the apparent porosity and particle morphological fractal dimensions by a large series of SEM images to determine the optimum threshold value.

Results showed the effective stress path of apparent over-consolidated status induced by undrained cyclic load was much similar to variation of effective stress generated by stress release in over-consolidated clay. Hereby, he derived the calculation formula to predict the strength variation based on apparent over-consolidation ratio. Fujiwara et al. (1985, 1987) comprehensively discussed factors such as total load, loading period, load increment ratio, loading form, degree of cementation, and number of loading cycles influencing the deformation on clay.

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