Download Persian (Descriptive Grammars) by Lewis Gebhardt PDF

By Lewis Gebhardt

Persian, or Farsi, is among the world's oldest languages. relationship again to the 6th century B.C., it's spoken this day by way of over 40 million humans in Iran and five million in Afghanistan. this can be the 1st complete grammar of Persian and gives distinct insurance of all its linguistic elements, together with the syntax, morphology and phonology.

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Here verb phrase means verb+direct object, or verb + direct object and prepositional phrase. Consequently, unlike the noun phrases in (34)– (36), a simple question word cannot be used to replace the verb phrase. Instead, as in many languages, including English, a phrase is required. In Persian the question word ci ‘what’ and the compound verb kar kærdæn ‘to work’ are used to question the verb phrase: (37) ke færiborz bæra-ye širin sobune dorost--kærd? ’ < previous page page_12 next page > < previous page page_13 next page > Page 13 (38) emruz, færiborz bæra-ye širin ci kar--kærd?

Previous page page_13 next page > < previous page page_14 next page > Page 14 (44) (to) fekr mi-kon-i (ke) mæryæm (you) think DUR-know-2S (that) Maryam se-ta mæjele-ro ci kar kærd? 2. 2, Persian does not have nonfinite subordinate clauses. 3 Noun phrase constituents that can be questioned A noun phrase may include the following elements: a demonstrative pronoun and/or quantifier which precede the noun, and modification via the ezafe construction following the noun. The modification may consist of an intensifier followed by an indefinite number of descriptive elements (including prepositional phrases, other noun phrases), all connected by ezafe.

28) ci-ro did-ænd? ’ (29) in kase cænd-e? ’ (30) bijæn pul-o be ki dad? Bijæn money-OM to who gave ‘Who did Bijæn give the money to’ (31) in sæg-e ki-ye? ’ (32) in sæg mal-e ki-ye? 1 Elements which can be questioned Elements in both main clauses and subordinate clauses may be questioned. 2. ’ (34) emruz ki bæra-ye širin sobune dorost--kærd? ’ (35) emruz færiborz bæra-ye širin ci dorost--kærd? ’ (36) emruz færiborz bæra-ye ki sobune dorost--kærd? today fariborz for who breakfast made--do? ’ In (37), (38) and (39) the adverbial emruz ‘today’ and the verb phrase are questioned.

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