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By Dennis S. Hill

This can be a textbook supplying uncomplicated info concerning the crop pests and the wear and tear they inflict through the tropics and sub-tropics. each one significant pest is illustrated by means of both a line drawing or a photo, and infrequently the wear and tear is also noticeable. an international distribution map is supplied for every species. regulate measures are typically common instead of very particular. lots of the pests are bugs and mites, yet a few nematodes, molluscs, birds and mammals are incorporated.

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In the areas at risk from these pests large wind-traps are mounted along the coast to sample the anemoplankton (small insects carried on the wind or air currents) to detect the arrival of these visitors. In these different cases, this type of warning is applicable only where the pest is known to be a serious one, and when economic damage is to be expected, based upon years of previous empirical experience. Such a crop is referred to as being at high risk. In its simplest form, this type of warning consists of a visual record of adult insects in the vicinity of the crop, otherwise the use of different types of traps is required.

Forecasting by prediction Temperature. Temperature is the single most important factor controlling insect development and hence population numbers. A simple method using mean temperatures for two months has been developed to predict the date of emergence of the adult of the Rice Stem Borer (Chilo simplex) in Japan. It has also been used in the USA for the prediction of outbreaks of the European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). A base temperature of 10°C is used, and the amount of development the pest attains daily is indicated by the number of degrees above 10°C each daily mean temperature reaches.

America) was due to the absence of Coffee Rust, Antestia Bugs, and Coffee Berry Borer, which remained behind in E. Africa; but this advantage has now been lost as in recent years both Rust and Berry Borer have become established in S. America. E. Asia is due in part to the absence of its native South American Leaf Blight. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) have organized a system of international plant protection with respect to the import and export of plant material.

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