By Marjorie Keniston McIntosh
Among the mid fourteenth century and the negative legislation of 1598 and 1601, English terrible aid moved towards a extra coherent and finished community of aid. Marjorie McIntosh's research, the 1st to track advancements throughout that point span, makes a speciality of 3 sorts of counsel: authorized begging and the solicitation of charitable alms; hospitals and almshouses for the bedridden and aged; and the help given via parishes. It explores altering conceptions of poverty and charity and adjusted roles for the church, nation and personal agencies within the provision of aid. The examine highlights fraud and negligence, mounting difficulty with right supervision and accounting, cooperation among nationwide and decrease degrees of presidency, and the creativity of local community in responding to poverty. This groundbreaking paintings demanding situations latest bills of the bad legislation, displaying that they addressed issues of different types of relief already in use instead of making a new procedure of reduction.
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Additional resources for Poor Relief in England, 1350-1600
Pt. , 27 and 169. , CPR, Hen. VI, vol. 6, 233–4, 251–2, 277, 283, 434–5, and 510, CPR, Edw. IV and Hen. VI, 113, 306, and 604, CPR, Ph. and Mary, vol. , vol. 6, 297–8, vol. 7, 213–14, CSPD, vol. 3, 525, L&IS, Cal. Pat. , 130–1 and 216. , CPR, Hen. VI, vol. 6, 303, CPR, Edw. VI, vol. 5, 403, and HMC, Cal. of the MSS of the Marquis of Salisbury, vol. 14, 145. , L&IS, Cal. Pat. ” 34 Introduction between £4 10s. and £6 13s. 4d. 109 Henry VIII had given resources to cathedrals to provide support for 124 almsmen, who were to be nominated by the crown but given a salary and sometimes housing by the deans and chapters.
Subsequent analyses, which take into account the growth of previous endowments as well as the value of new ones, suggest that there was some increase under Elizabeth, although it was only in the 1580s that private endowments reached a level that compensated for the loss in monastic charity (Hadwin, “Deﬂating Philanthropy,” Gould, “Bittle and Lane on Charity,” and Slack, Poverty and Policy, 162–4). Although Jordan discussed the great demographic increase across his period, he did not attempt to calculate the value of charitable donations as compared to the total population.
Jordan, Philanthropy in England, 368, for this and below. While Jordan’s basic ﬁgures have rarely been challenged, his interpretations of the numbers have rightly been criticized on many fronts. An important problem concerns inﬂation. , 34–6, in a section on “Frailties of the Method”), he seems to have forgotten about inﬂation as he wrote his enthusiastic descriptions of the great increase in charitable giving, especially after 1600. It was at ﬁrst suggested by later scholars that if one corrected Jordan’s ﬁgures through use of a price-wage series, his numbers showed no rise in philanthropy at all during the Elizabethan period as compared with the late ﬁfteenth century (Bittle and Lane, “Inﬂation and Philanthropy”).