Download Principles of Insect Morphology (Comstock Book) by R. E. Snodgrass PDF

By R. E. Snodgrass

This vintage textual content, first released in 1935, is once more to be had. nonetheless the normal reference within the English language, rules of Insect Morphology is taken into account the author's masterpiece. a skilled artist in addition to one of many best entomologists of his day, Robert E. Snodgrass produced a wealth of guides that reveal an accuracy and precision nonetheless unsurpassed.

The 19 chapters during this quantity hide every one staff of insect organs and their linked constructions, whilst supplying a coherent morphological view in their basic nature and obvious evolution. to complete this objective, Snodgrass compares insect organs with these of alternative arthropods. each one bankruptcy concludes with a thesaurus of phrases. The 319 multipart illustrations are a useful resource of knowledge and feature by no means been duplicated.

This version encompasses a new foreword by means of George Eickwort, Professor of Entomology at Cornell collage, which relates the publication to modern classes in insect morphology. Republication of this textbook will supply one other iteration of scholars with an important beginning for his or her reviews in entomology.

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Sample text

It is a common mistake to suppose that the sclerites of the insect body wall are "strongly chitinized" areas of the cuticula. The reverse probably is more generally true, since sclerotization results from the deposit of nonchitinous substances in the exocuticula. Campbell (1929) has shown that the exocuticula of Periplaneta contains only about 22 per cent of chitin, while the soft endocuticula contains about 60 per cent, and Kunike (1926) found that the wing covers of a May beetle contain by weight 75 per cent of nonchitinous substances, and those of a grasshopper as much as 80 per cent.

18 G, b), the edges of which come together (H) and unite beneath the embryo (I). The corresponding layers of the opposite folds then become continuous, and the embryo is shut in beneath two cellular membranes, the outer of which is the serosa (Ser), the inner the amnion (Am). Usually the amnion and serosa remain in contact over the ventral surface of the embryo; but in some cases, particularly in the Lepidoptera, the embryo and the amnion sink into the yolk, and a part of the yolk then fills the space between the amnion and the serosa, producing a submerged condition of the embryo.

The two forms of articulations may be distinguished as intrinsic and extrinsic, respectively. Extrinsic articulations are usually of the ball-and-socket type and are particularly characteristic of the articulations of the mouth appendages with the wall of the cranium (D). The articulations of the legs with the body (the pleuro-coxal articulations) are intrinsic, as are usually also the articulations between the leg segments (C), though monocondylic leg articulations may be extrinsic. 2.

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