Download Professional programmer's guide to Fortran77 by Page C.G. PDF

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Mixing data types increases the risks of making mistakes and it is often simpler and safer 5 CONSTANTS, VARIABLES, AND ARRAYS 34 to use the double precision type instead of real throughout the program, even though this may use slightly more memory and processor time. Although automatic type conversions are provided for the arithmetic types in expressions, in other cases such as procedure calls it is essential for each actual argument to have the same data type as the corresponding dummy argument.

By columns rather than rows. This means arranging loop indices with the last subscript indexed by the outer loop, and so on inwards. 0D0 DO 250,L = 1,100 DO 150,K = 1,100 SUM = SUM + ARRAY(K,L) CONTINUE CONTINUE With the loops arranged this way around the memory locations are accessed in consecutive order, which minimises the processor overhead in subscript calculations. 6 ARITHMETIC 43 6 Arithmetic Fortran has good facilities for processing numbers. Arithmetic expressions and assignment statements can include integer, real, double precision, or complex items.

In many programming languages, especially those in the Algol family, the data type of almost every item in the program has to be specified explicitly. Many programmers regard it as a chore to have to provide all these type specifications, although their presence does make it rather easier for the compiler to detect mistakes. In Fortran you can specify data types explicitly in a similar way by using type statements, but Fortran also makes life easier by having certain default types. The data type of any object which has not been declared in a type statement depends on the first letter of its name.

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