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31). Pitkin (1985: 107) suggests that W -da, first person subject, is from -da, intensifier “very” which also translates as “from” or “of,” which in turn is related to -da, suffix of adverbs of time. While I agree that the three suffixes are closely related, I believe their primary meaning is not intensive, but speakerrelational. As a first person suffix, *-da relates an incident to the speaker (it happened to self) like a deictic, which goes well with the “from, of” meaning and the suffix occurring with adverbs of time which relate a time period to the speaker’s present.

23 *-in, locative case, is reconstructible based on W -n, -in, locative case, and P -in, locative-instrumental, but no complete words can be reconstructed. ” It also occurs with adverbs of time (hima·da, a little while ago, le·nda, yesterday). ” Its basic function is relational (“with” relates two people; in the W adverbs it relates two time periods), which explains its use as, or connection with, the first person subject verbal suffix which relates an incident to the speaker. 1. *§el-, in horizontally.

It is diachronically related to *§u, do/be at a distance, the counterpart of non-distal *§iy. 23 *-a, *-a· has been tentatively identified as a realis stem-deriving suffix. It is historically related to the auxiliary *-§a, have. The long-vowel allomorph reflects the loss of the glottal stop of *-§a. No semantic difference has been identified in PW, W or P between forms with the long and short vowel. The fact that *-a· (along with its allomorph *-e· which is doubtful and only occurs in one form) is the only suffix of the shape *-V· further confirms its origin in the auxiliary *-§a.

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