By Laura Pla, Fernando Casanoves, Julio Di Rienzo
This booklet synthesizes present tools used to quantify sensible range, offering step by step examples for outlining practical teams and estimating useful indices. The authors convey easy methods to evaluate groups, and the way to investigate alterations of range alongside environmental gradients, utilizing real-life examples all through. One component of the ebook demonstrates the choice of features, and the standardization and characterization of atmosphere information. one other part offers tools used to quantify useful range, indicates the right way to relate sensible range with environmental variables and the way to attach those to surroundings providers. The concluding part introduces FDiversity, a unfastened software built via the authors. The reader is guided via each step from software program install and simple features, to pattern and database layout, to graphical projection tools, utilizing case learn facts to demonstrate key concepts.
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Extra resources for Quantifying Functional Biodiversity
The ecological distance between species ‘i’ and ‘j’ may be expressed as (Eq. 1a, from Walker et al. 1999) vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ u T uX À Á2 EDij ¼ t xtj À xti t¼1 where T is the total number of attributes, and xti and xtj are the values of the tth trait of species ‘i’ and ‘j’. Using EDij ; which is the Euclidean distance between two species, FAD2 is defined as FAD2 ¼ S X S X EDij i¼1 j [ 1 in a community with S species. In an attempt to make FAD2 comparable among communities with different number of species, the authors propose to standardize the index dividing by the number of interspecies comparisons.
The expression of quadratic entropy as an absolute value is not useful when the comparisons have to be done between communities with very different numbers of species or when different sets of traits were used to define the distance matrix. To get a relative expression the maximum has to be estimated from the data. The distance matrix does not depend on the abundance of species and is fixed for a given set of species, but changes in the relative abundance of these species may lead to the maximum diversity index (Raomax ).
For example, the FD (Petchey and Gaston 2002) diversity index (Sect. 1) may be calculating with species values for one trait. 2 Species Diversity Indices Richness (S): richness is the total number of species in a community. It is the most simple biodiversity index and it does not take into account any characteristic of species or their relative abundance. Several estimators to avoid bias due to unseen or unrecorded species are currently used like those proposed by Chao et al. (for details see for example Magurran 2004).