Download Schaum's Outline of Fundamentals of Relational Databases by Ramon Mata-Toledo, Pauline Cushman PDF

By Ramon Mata-Toledo, Pauline Cushman

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Example text

Foreign keys are generally defined after all tables have been created and populated. 9 or problems of circularity. The latter problem occurs when one table references values in another table, which in turn, may reference the first table. Integrity constraints are defined using DDL statements and are automatically enforced by the RDBMS. 8 A keyword is a word that has a specific meaning to the system and cannot be used outside a specific context. 5— Relational Operators We call relational operators a set of operators that allow us to manipulate the tables of the database.

Given a relation r, a subset X = {A1,A2, . , Ak} of attributes of r, and any tuple t of r, we will call the X-value of t, denoted by t(A1, A2, . , Ak) the k-tuple {t(A1), t(A2), . , t(Ak)}. That is, the X-value of a tuple t is a k-tuple whose elements are the individual entries at the intersection of the tuple t and the attributes A1, A2, . , Ak respectively. If the order of the attributes is understood, the X-value of t can be denoted by t(X). Primary keys are defined using DDL statements and are automatically enforced by the RDBMS.

2— Mathematical Definition of a Relation In this section we will formalize the definitions of the previous section. Given a finite set of attributes A1, A2, A3, . , An we will call a relational scheme R the set formed by all these attributes. That is, R = {A1, A2, A3, . , An}. Associated with each of these attributes there is a nonempty set Di, (1 ≤ i ≤ n) called the domain of the attribute Ai and denoted by Dom(Ai). Let D be a new set defined as the union of all the attribute domains. In other words, D = D1 ∪ D2 .

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