Download Speed Math for Kids_ Helping Children Achieve Their Full by Bill Handley PDF

By Bill Handley

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Example text

We chose reference numbers of 10 and 100 because it is easy to multiply by 10 and 100. The method will work just as well with other reference numbers, but we must choose numbers that are easy to multiply by. Multiplication by factors It is easy to multiply by 20, because 20 is 2 times 10. It is easy to multiply by 10 and it is easy to multiply by 2. This is called multiplication by factors, because 10 and 2 are factors of 20 (20 = 10 × 2). So, to multiply any number by 20, you multiply it by 2 and then multiply the answer by 10, or, you could say, you double the number and add a 0.

How do you multiply 3 by 14? Fourteen has factors of 2 and 7. To multiply 3 × 14 you can multiply 3 × 2 × 7. 3×2=6 6 × 7 = 42 42 × 11 = 462 Answer You can think of the problem 14 × 33 as 7 × 2 × 3 × 11. Seven times 3 × 2 is the same as 7 × 6, which is 42. You are then left with 42 × 11. Teaching yourself to look for factors can make life easier and can turn you into a real mathematician. One last question for this chapter: how would you multiply by 55? To multiply by 55 you could multiply by 11 and 5 (5 × 11 = 55) or you could multiply by 11 and 10 and halve the answer.

Let’s try 8 as a reference number. Let’s try 7 as a reference number. Let’s try 3 as a reference number. Let’s try 2 as a reference number. Try using the reference numbers 9 and 11 to multiply 7 by 8. Let’s try 9 first. The numbers are below 9 so we draw the circles below. How much below 9? Two and 1. Write 2 and 1 in the circles. Subtract crossways. 7−1=6 Multiply 6 by the reference number, 9. 6 × 9 = 54 This is our subtotal. Now multiply the numbers in the circles and add the result to 54. 2×1=2 54 + 2 = 56 Answer This is obviously impractical but it proves it can be done.

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