By L F Uchegbu
The self-assembly of man-made surfactants and different non-phospholipids into vesicles was once first studied within the Seventies by means of beauty scientists while non-ionic surfactant vesicles or niosomes have been pronounced. due to the fact this time a wide physique of study has sought to outline those structures essentially as drug vendors and likewise as good points of curiosity to the colloid scientist. man made surfactant vesicles, because the identify implies, can also be made of an enormous array of amphiphiles, together with a couple of pharmaceutically appropriate fabrics. they could even be ready in numerous sizes and styles and feature a few functions. This publication is designed to function an introductory textual content to the technology of non-phospholipid vesicles and should be of use to colloid, drug supply, beauty, and fabrics scientists. It goals to acquaint the reader with the physicochemistry and biomedical purposes of those artificial surfactant non-phospholipid vesicles. half one introduces the reader to physicochemical features of those man made surfactant dispersions and explores the variety of fabrics which may be used to formulate vesicles. half info tools of vesicle guidance and the appliance of artificial surfactant vesicles in numerous fields starting from anti-cancer chemotherapy to immunization.
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Additional resources for Synthetic surfactant vesicles : niosomes and other non-phospholipid vesicular systems
The polyhedral niosomes have faceted structures at room temperature and at 37°C. , 1997b) polyhedral niosomes undergo transformation into spherical structures, while cholesterol-rich spherical niosomes remain intact (Figure 9). There are thus different temperature effects on the flow pattern of both systems. On increasing the temperature, the viscosity of both niosomes decreases due to reduced particle-solvent interactions. However, the decrease in viscosity of spherical niosomes (Figure 7a) is less dramatic than that of polyhedral niosomes (Figure 7b), highlighting the overriding importance of shape.
Drug Targeting, 2, 397–403. K. and Blankschtein, D. (1996) Molecular thermodynamic modelling of mixed cationic/anionic vesicles. Langmuir, 12, 3802–3818. 3. FLORENCE Centre for Drug Delivery Research, The School of Pharmacy, University of London, 29–39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK INTRODUCTION Niosomes are unilamellar or multilamellar vesicles which are analogues of liposomes. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, niosomes are formed mainly by self-assembly of synthetic non-ionic surfactants with the optional combination of cholesterol and charged surfactants.
Similary for micelles in aqueous media, provided that the density of the surfactant is known, is readily obtained. As the lipids and surfactants in niosomes are hydrated and in the form of bilayers entrapping water or drug solution inside, it is incorrect to use the volume of dry surfactant obtained from surfactant density to calculate the volume fraction of the niosomes. In addition to the fact that niosomes are highly hydrated, it is difficult to predict the volume fraction of niosomes which are formed either by the same concentration of lipids/surfactants of different types or even the same types but prepared with different methods.