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By Colin G. Calloway

This examine offers the 1st large insurance of Indian stories within the American Revolution instead of Indian participation as allies or enemies of contending events. Colin Calloway specializes in 8 Indian groups as he explores how the Revolution usually translated into warfare between Indians and their very own struggles for independence. Drawing on British, American, Canadian and Spanish documents, Calloway indicates how local american citizens pursued varied concepts, persisted numerous reports, yet have been bequeathed a standard legacy as a result of Revolution.

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Additional info for The American Revolution in Indian Country: Crisis and Diversity in Native American Communities

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16 A dire breach of ethical conduct was treason to one's own group. A traitor was forever distrusted and sometimes killed or banished, a punishment in many ways worse than death. 17 Thus employment of Apaches against Apaches set up many tensions and was one of the techniques of divide and conquer that Spaniards and Mexicans used in their efforts to control the frontier. Relationships between males and females were strictly controlled and from adolescence on the separation of the sexes was virtually absolute.

When surprised by Spanish or Mexican forces Apaches kept cool heads and always displayed the utmost bravery and disregard for danger. '' 28 But Apache warriors were not fools, and if they saw the tide turning against them they followed the maxim that judgment was the better part of valor and disappeared from battle as fast as they had appeared. Under assault they were extremely efficient, rapidly breaking camp with men and women cooperating to move babies, food, and possessions. They made forced marches on foot or horseback until they could shake their pursuers and reach safety.

2 (summer 1991): 151-99. Page xii 5. José Cortés, Views from the Apache Frontier: Report on the Northern Provinces of New Spain, 1799, ed. Elizabeth A. H. John and John Wheat (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989). 6. William B. Griffen, "Problems in the Study of Apaches and Other Indians in Chihuahua and Southern New Mexico during the Spanish and Mexican Periods," The Kiva 50, nos. 2-3 (Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society, 1985): 139-51. 7. William B. Griffen, "Southern Apaches: Midway to Dependency, Some Suggestions for Research" (paper presented at the University of Texas at El Paso as part of the proceedings of the conference on Apaches held at Truth or Consequences, New Mexico, November 9-10, 1990).

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