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By Gary A. Polis (Editor)

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The second section deals with the origin and evolution of the order and includes a discussion of the fossil taxa and their relationships to Recent forms. At the end of the chapter is a brief discussion of the role of scorpions in the evolution of the subphylum Chelicerata. This chapter reflects our current understanding of scorpion systematics, and is not intended as a systematic revision or a phylogenetic reappraisal of the order Scorpiones. Undoubtedly, many taxonomic changes will be made as intergeneric relationships become clarified.

These particular abnormalities appear only on one side of any particular specimen, although they may occur on either side of the body. A singular sexual anomaly was described by Maury (1983), in which a hermaphroditic Brachistosternus pentheri was found with both embryos and hemispermatophores. With the exception of reports by Pavesi (1881) and Brauer (1917) concerning Euscorpius (Chactidae), and by Maury (1983) concerning a bothriurid, all developmental anomalies have been reported from the family Buthidae.

Pedipalp femur with 10 or more trichobothria, of which 4 or 5 are on the internal aspect (Figs. 3); pedipalp patella without ventral trichobothria (Fig. 2D) ……………………………………………………………. Buthidae Pedipalp femur with 9 or fewer trichobothria, of which only 1 is on the internal aspect (Figs. 5A); pedipalp patella with 1 or more ventral trichobothria (Figs. 5D): Coxapophyses broadly expanded anteriorly (Fig. 7A); pedipalp femur with 9 trichobothria, of which 4 are on the dorsal aspect (Fig. 4A) ………………………………………………………………………………..

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