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By Peter J. Bowler, John V. Pickstone

- v. three. Early smooth technological know-how -- v. four. Eighteenth-century technological know-how / edited via Roy Porter -- v. five. the trendy actual and mathematical sciences / edited by means of Mary Jo Nye -- v. 6. the fashionable organic and earth sciences / edited through Peter J. Bowler, John v. Pickstone -- v. 7. the fashionable social sciences / edited through Theodore M. Porter, Dorothy Ross

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The Cambridge history of science. The Modern Biological and Earth Sciences

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Some experimented with crossing plants or captured birdsong in musical notation. J. F. M. 25 Those who made major contributions typically belonged to some research subcommunity, perhaps sitting at the center of a web of postal informants, like Charles Darwin or the chief exponent of Humboldtian botany in Britain, Hewett Cottrell Watson (1804–1881). 26 ACADEMICIZATION Buoyed by its faintly aristocratic aura, the world of natural history entered the last quarter of the nineteenth century confident in what it was doing and with no expectation of altering its ways – although its members were having to revise their convictions drastically to accommodate evolutionary theory.

In an age when nepotism still operated in the filling of paid positions, those networks could give rise to dynasties of professionals, of which the de Jussieus in France and the Hookers in Britain are the outstanding examples. 20 THE CULTURE OF COLLECTING The world of natural history was held together by the commitment of everyone in it to the same set of activities and attitudes. While the prevailing modes of study were collecting, describing, listing, or mapping, no division could emerge between those who were paid and those who were not.

Roy Porter, “Gentlemen and Geology: The Emergence of a Scientific Career, 1660–1920,” Historical Journal, 21 (1978), 809–36. See also Martin J. S. Rudwick, The Great Devonian Controversy: The Shaping of Scientific Knowledge among Gentlemanly Specialists (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985). Anne Secord, “Science in the Pub: Artisan Botanists in Early Nineteenth Century Lancashire,” History of Science, 32 (1979), 269–315; Anne Secord, “Artisan Botany,” in Cultures of Natural History, ed.

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