By Dave Osborne
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Extra resources for The coal handbook: Towards cleaner production
The first supercritical CFBC plant of 460 MWe size was commissioned in Poland in 2009, while designs of a larger unit size are under way. Application of the CFBC technology will continue to grow, particularly for burning lower grade coals, including plant rejects and high sulphur coals, opportunity fuels and biomass. IGCC is arguably the most appealing technology and is well placed to facilitate CO2 capture. However, the cost and availability of IGCC remains a barrier to establishing a viable alternative to PCC units.
Dry process – quarried clay and limestone are crushed separately to about 100 mm upper size. Both material streams are sampled for mineral analysis. If necessary, minerals are then added to ensure that the correct amounts of aluminium, iron, etc. are present. The clay and limestone are then fed together into a pulverizer mill and ground until more than 85% of the material is less than 75 μm. 2. Wet process – the clay is first mixed to a water-based slurry paste in a mixing tank. Crushed lime is then added, and the whole mixture further ground, usually in a ball-mill, and homogenized.
In an EAF, heat is provided via an electric arc (around 35 MW) to melt the charge at a temperature of about 1600°C. EAFs do not use coal directly as a raw material, but often rely on coal-fired electric power. In addition, up to about 150 kg of coal (or coke) per tonne of steel is used for carburizing as well as for producing gases needed to create a foam which protects the electrodes. g. DRI and hot briquetted iron (HBI)), or pig iron are often utilized as feed, together with scrap steel, to provide a source of high quality ‘clean iron’ required for higher quality steels.