Download The Economics of Poverty: History, Measurement, and Policy by Martin Ravallion PDF

By Martin Ravallion

There are fewer humans dwelling in severe poverty on the earth at the present time than 30 years in the past. whereas that's an fulfillment, carrying on with development for bad humans is much from guaranteed. Inequalities in entry to key assets threaten to stall progress and poverty aid in lots of locations. The world's poorest have made just a small absolute achieve over these 30 years. development has been gradual opposed to relative poverty as judged through the factors of the rustic and time one lives in, and a superb many folks within the world's rising center category stay at risk of falling again into poverty.

The Economics of Poverty reviews severely prior and current debates on poverty, spanning either wealthy and negative international locations. The e-book presents an available new synthesis of present financial considering on key questions: How is poverty measured? How a lot poverty is there? Why does poverty exist, and is it inevitable? What might be performed to lessen poverty? Can it also be eradicated? The booklet doesn't imagine that readers understand economics already. these new to the topic get loads of support alongside the way in which in realizing its suggestions and techniques. Economics lives via its relevance to genuine international difficulties, and the following the matter of poverty is either the significant concentration and a car for learning.

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There are concerns that (even if measured well) it reveals little about how the benefits of growth are distributed in society or about the attendant environmental costs. Chapter 8 discusses GDP in more detail. Historical note: Simon Kuznets is credited with inventing the concept of GDP, in a report to the US Congress in the 1930s. He was well aware of the problems in calculating GDP and noted that: the clear and unequivocal character of such estimates [of GDP] is deceptive. Theoretical problems arise in defining the area of “nation”; in the choice of stage in the circulation of commodities and services at which 1 A well-known source of examples is Arthur Young’s travelogue from rural France in 1787–1789, in which he described (for example) that women and children of tenant farmers did not possess shoes; see Young (1792, 18).

Given that development in poor countries was likely to promote the trade balances of those countries, it was seen as potentially detrimental to the home country. Mercantilists were in favor of government intervention in the economy, but mainly for the purpose of promoting their country’s power globally. The main means to maximize the BOT was cheap production inputs, that is, cheap raw materials (for which Colonies proved useful) and cheap, and therefore poor, labor at home. Poverty was seen as an essential precondition for a country’s economic development.

Introduction 7 Part Two looks more closely at measurement and methodological issues. The key concepts are explained, including the various (often ongoing) debates about how best to assess well-being and measure poverty and inequality. Here some of the material is more technical in nature. However, readers who only want to understand the basic elements of prevailing measurement practices can skip the more technical material. Part Three turns to the main policy debates about how best to fight poverty.

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