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By F. C. Jones and G. M. D. Howat (Auth.)

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The use and manufacture of muskets soon spread in Japan and resulted in a greater use of infantry equipped with the new weapons, as opposed to horsemen armed with b o w and sword. The Portuguese enjoyed a monopoly of Western trade with Japan for the next half-century and their well-armed ships, which were more than a match for pirates, also engaged in the trade between Japan and China. The Jesuit Order enjoyed a similar monopoly in missionary enterprise and were welcomed by most of the daimyo, partly on account of the trade and partly as an offset to the political influence of the Buddhist monasteries.

His military reforms made the T'ang army the most efficient in Asia, while he also created a centrally controlled provincial administration. He and his successors reestablished Chinese power in Central Asia where they defeated and subdued the Turkish tribes. However, in the middle of the eighth century this was undone by a coalition of a Turkish people called the Karluks with the rising power of the Arab Caliphate. The Tibetans, at that time united under capable kings, were another menace. In 763, when the T'ang empire was crippled by a great internal revolt, the Tibetans even raided Ch'ang An, the T'ang capital.

But he then turned westwards to conquer Central Asia. His last campaign was against the Hsi Hsia, who had refused to aid him in this, and their kingdom was utterly destroyed. Ogodai, the successor of Genghiz, renewed the attack upon the Chin and by 1234 had overrun their empire. Then came the turn of the Sung rulers, who had foolishly helped the Mongols against the Chin. The Mongols, drawing upon the knowledge of peoples they had subjected, were by now skilled in siegecraft and although they met with a stubborn resistance they completed ahe conquest of all China in 1279.

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