By Maryann P. Feldman (auth.)
This e-book bargains a geographic size to the research of innovation and product commercialization. construction at the literature in economics and geography, this booklet demonstrates that product innovation clusters spatially in areas which offer concentrations of the information wanted for the commercialization strategy. The e-book develops a conceptual version which hyperlinks the site of recent product ideas to the assets of those wisdom inputs. The geographic focus of this information fonns a technological infrastructure which promotes infonnation transfers, and lowers the dangers and the prices of conducting leading edge job. Empirical estimation confinns that the positioning of product innovation is expounded to the underlying technological infrastructure, and that the site of the data inputs are collectively reinforcing in defining a region's aggressive virtue. The ebook concludes by way of contemplating the coverage implications of those fmdings for either inner most finns and nation governments. This paintings is meant for teachers, coverage practitioners and scholars within the fields of innovation and technological swap, geography and neighborhood technology, and monetary improvement. This paintings is a part of a bigger examine attempt to appreciate why the positioning of cutting edge task varies spatially, particularly the externalities and lengthening returns which accrue to situation. xi Acknowledgements This paintings has benefitted tremendously from discussions with acquaintances and associates. I desire to in particular be aware the contribution of Mark Kamlet, Wes Cohen, Richard Florida, Zoltan Acs and David Audretsch. i want to thank Gail Cohen Shaivitz for her commitment in enhancing the ultimate manuscript.
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Extra resources for The Geography of Innovation
Substitution of the direct measure of innovative activity for the patent measure in the knowledge production function generally strengthens Jaffe's arguments, and reinforces his fmdings. The effect of university spill-overs is apparently greater on innovations than on patented inventions. 431 when the innovation measure is used. Most importantly, the innovation data provides even greater support that spillovers are facilitated by geographically-mediated spill-overs from 46 The Geography of Innovation university research and industries R&D activities.
48 The Geography of Innovation Chapter Notes: 1. S. Patent office provided Jaffe (1989) an opportunity to look at regional patenting activity. Also see Jaffe, Trajtenberg and Henderson (1993). 2. Branch plant locations are more likely to engage in process innovation (Howells 1990). 3. This data was analyzed in considerable detail by Acs and Audretsch (1988,1990). The data are introduced on page 4. A more complete description of the data is provided in Appendix A. 4. Infonnation as to the economic significance or the revenue generated by each innovations is not available.
For innovative output, Jaffe uses the number of corporate patents per technical area in a state. The two innovative inputs are total industrial R&D expenditures by state, IND. s' and university research expenditures by technical area by state, UNIVis• Unfortunately, industrial R&D expenditures are not available at the industry level. s' is included to control for size differences across the geographic units of observation. 0 University research and Industrial R&D expenditures are reported in millions of 1972 dollars.