By Dr Tomiko Narahara
During this leading edge research, Tomiko Narahara bargains a multi-disciplinary description of the japanese copula, revealing it to be on the interface of morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. such a lot extraordinary is her discovery of the copula's functionality to specific the speaker's wisdom or lack of understanding concerning the proposition of the sentence. She presents a brand new morphological function research to derive this modal functionality and extra proposes a chain of unified money owed for quite a lot of discourse phenomena.
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Extra resources for The Japanese Copula: Forms and Functions
B. ’ (39) Hungarian (Kiefer 1968) a. ’ b. ’ The Copula as a Universal Notion 37 c. ’ In examples (36)–(39), the (a) sentences, which are interpreted as present tense sentences, are copula-less. These languages do not have a copula form for the present tense interpretation, which obtains by default, that is by the absence of a feature indicating any other time reference. These examples conﬁrm that the copula makes no contribution to the semantic interpretation and that its primary function is to morphologically encode grammatical features.
In the traditional grammar for classical Japanese, several aspectual auxiliaries are speciﬁed to be sufﬁxed to this form. One of them is a perfective auxiliary -tari: (32)a. Adverbial form [root-(i)] b. ’ (Makurano sooshi, 21 by Sei Shoonago 990 AD) 54 The View from Feature Morphology In modern Japanese grammar, among those that are speciﬁed to sufﬁx to the adverbial form are the past tense morpheme -ta, the polite morpheme -mas, and the conjunctive particle -te. The past tense morpheme -ta evolved from the perfective -tari.
Therefore, properly speaking, truth resides in the intellect combining and dividing. (emphasis added) As I have emphasized, combining and dividing, which are afﬁrmation and negation by copula, are generalized to be the operation of the intellect in judging the truth. The special function endowed to the copula leads to the question of how propositions that are afﬁrmed or negated without a copula should be treated. Surely ‘Jerry runs’ is an afﬁrmative proposition. Such a proposition may be used as evidence against the copula’s function as a proposition-forming, judgement-expressing agent.