Download The Philippines: A Past Revisited by Renato Constantino, Letizia R. Constantino PDF

By Renato Constantino, Letizia R. Constantino

During this publication the conventional components of ancient writing are incorporated yet are significantly tested opposed to the history of adjustments in creation kin and sophistication constitution and within the function of the Filipino humans within the making in their personal historical past.

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37 The rebellion was reported to the throne on April 19, 1592, by a Shaanxi surveillance official, who reported that the entire province was in an uproar and only a single official (Xiao Ruxun at Pingluo) was resisting the mutineers with any degree of success. Recognizing the gravity of the situation, Wanli immediately called for a meeting with Minister of War Shi Xing (d. 1597). They decided that the uprising needed to be settled quickly lest it engulf the entire northwest frontier. They issued an edict for the selection of 7,000 fearless men from Xuanda and Shanxi to come to the rescue.

22 Even as these institutional changes were being implemented, some officials began calling for wider recruitment of mercenaries, both to improve efficiency and to lighten the burden of military costs for local areas. It is interesting to consider this development in light of mercenary use elsewhere. 23 Ming officials often complained that such troops never trained, ignored all regulations, and frequently caused local problems, including riots. But others recognized that mercenaries, if properly trained and led, could be much more effective in battle than peasant conscripts.

As Liew Foon Ming points out: “The lot of the Ming Ministers of War was precarious in a court divided into ambitious antagonistic factions who seemed to be in perpetual conflict stimulated more by personal interest rather than by differences of appearance in matters of policy. ”21 Wang called for the dismissal of the offending officials and speedy military reorganization, to which Emperor Jiajing (r. 1522–66) assented. New training positions, albeit posts that still subordinated military officials to civilian oversight, were created.

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