By W. Niven
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Extra info for The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell [Vol II]
E. 1 The reaction between sodium and chlorine atoms chlorine anion Cl– this is the maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in that orbit. ) The next is filled by eight electrons. Although strictly speaking an oversimplification, it is convenient to assume from now on that eight electrons is the maximum number that can be accommodated in an outer shell. The significant feature that governs the way in which different atoms combine is the number of electrons in the outermost shell. The sodium atom has a single electron in the outermost shell, while the chlorine atom has seven.
There are many simple electrolytes and the two most commonly used in coloration are sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium sulphate (Na2SO4), the latter being known as Glauber’s salt. Water-soluble dyes are also electrolytes, but in this case the coloured part of the molecule is very large and usually an anion, whilst the cation, usually a sodium ion, is very small by comparison. In fact water-soluble dye molecules are all synthesised to contain at least one group of atoms known to confer water solubility on the dye molecule through the formation of ions.
7. pH values The pH scale is a convenient way of expressing the strength of solutions of acids or bases. It distinguishes between strongly acidic and strongly basic compounds, which are completely – or almost completely – dissociated in solution, and between weak acids and weak bases which dissociate only slightly. A solution with a pH of 7 is neutral; pH values of less than 7 represent acidity Contents and values greater than 7 alkalinity (basicity), the full scale ranging from 0 to 14. These figures are not arbitrary.