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By Gessica De Angelis

3rd or extra Language Acquisition examines examine at the acquisition of languages past the L2 inside 4 major parts of inquiry: crosslinguistic impression, multilingual speech construction versions, the multilingual lexicon and the impression of bi/multilingualism on cognitive improvement.

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Extra info for Third or Additional Language Acquisition

Example text

Item transfer may lead to positive or negative transfer in both comprehension and production. At the early stages of acquisition, learners often establish a one-to-one relationship between individual items by equating the meaning of an L2 word with that of an L1 word. Since at the early stages of acquisition learners have limited knowledge of the target language, they identify similarities between items by relying on form rather than meaning. Item transfer occurs whenever there is an underlying assumption that two items similar in form are also similar in meaning.

Some assume that recent use facilitates the occurrence of some kinds of influences due to easier access to linguistic information stored in the mind (cf. Poulisse, 1997; Poulisse and Bongaerts, 1994). Among those who believe that a language recently used is likely to influence target language production are Williams and Hammarberg (1998), who list recency of use among the four factors likely to determine whether a language will take on the main supplier role during the production process. The other three factors are typology, proficiency and L1/L2 status.

Among those who believe that a language recently used is likely to influence target language production are Williams and Hammarberg (1998), who list recency of use among the four factors likely to determine whether a language will take on the main supplier role during the production process. The other three factors are typology, proficiency and L1/L2 status. Shanon (1991) goes even further proposing 35  'H $QJHOLV  37JNT[G 36 1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 2 3111 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111   3DJH  Third or Additional Language Acquisition the existence of a last language or recency effect, according to which learners rely upon the language that was learned last.

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