By Judith Van Leeuwen
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Additional info for Who Greens the Waves?: Changing Authority in the Environmental Governance of Shipping and Offshore Oil and Gas Production
G. norms or voluntary agreements) (Rosenau, 1992, 2002, 2003a). These mechanisms are the instruments through which compliance is achieved. For example, a formal compliance mechanism is inspections that the government does to control compliance with permits. There is a direct link between the organization and substance of the sphere of authority and the dimension of compliance mechanisms (Figure 1), because the actors within a sphere of authority seek compliance from the targeted actor(s). However, compliance can also be linked to the steering mechanism within the sphere of authority, when compliance mechanisms are integrated in the steering mechanisms, for example through sanction for non-compliance, rewards for compliance, shared goals, work programmes.
Moreover, certain rules can be part of a sphere of authority for a long time, while others are new and ad hoc and only have a momentary impact on the acts of actors in the sphere of authority. Rules of the game are closely related to both the actor and the power dimension. Rules are linked with actors because rules influence the behaviour of actors, the position of actors in the sphere of authority and the interaction between actors. However, rules also provide power resources to actors when these rules allocate certain responsibilities or specific power resources to actors.
Besides governmental officials, industry actors have been interviewed. Especially industry associations have been interviewed as they are the representatives of the industry. In the offshore oil and gas production case, individual companies were interviewed as well. This is related to the fact that in the environmental governance of offshore oil and gas production individual companies play a more specific role. Moreover, the number of companies is limited. Contrary to that, in the environmental governance of shipping, which largely takes place on the international level, individual companies are much less visible and there are a larger number of companies.